This paper reports on a meta-case study analysis of a ten-year research program on citizenship, participation, and accountability that analyzed 100 research studies in 20 countries.
A typology of four democratic and developmental outcomes was created, including:
- the construction of citizenship,
- the strengthening of practices of participation,
- the strengthening of responsive and accountable states; and
- the development of inclusive and cohesive societies.
The analysis found that citizen participation produces positive effects across these outcome types, though in each category there are also examples of negative outcomes of citizen participation. The study also found that these outcomes vary according to the type of citizen engagement and to political context.
– Institute of Development Studies